Interpreting means orally translating a speech from the source to the target language. It differs from translation, as the interpreter must carry on the whole intellectual process of translating a speech from one language to the other simultaneously or within a few minutes. There is no time to look for information nor to reflect on the meaning, so this activity requires a great concentration ability and language proficiency, as well as knowledge of the culture, the context and the topic of the speech. Therefore, to guarantee an effective and accurate communication, it is necessary to count on a professional interpreter with specific training. There are different modes of interpreting, each of them adapted to specific needs:
- Simultaneous: the interpreter translates and produces the target speech at the same time as he or she receives the source speech.
- Consecutive: the speaker delivers the speech and then the interpreter uses notes to summarize it in the target language.
- Liaison: the interpreter translates from and into the target language, in order to facilitate oral communication between several speakers of different languages.
- Whispered or chuchotage: simultaneous, consecutive or liaison interpreting provided for one or more people who don’t understand the language of the speaker, very quietly, to avoid interrupting the event or bothering the rest of the group.